What Is IMRaD? IMRaD Format in Simple Terms!

You might be reading this article perhaps because you have faced the same question; What is IMRaD?

When writing a scientific paper, it is important to follow an appropriate organizational structure. IMRaD is one such organizational format. IMRaD is an acronym, which stands for Introduction, Method, Results, And Discussion. It is an increasingly popular organizational structure used in several scientific journals, such as public health and the natural sciences. Theses and dissertations structured using the IMRaD format are usually short and concise. The language will be as plain and as clear as possible. There is no place in this type of writing for personal views and purple pros. The IMRaD format allows readers to navigate through content with ease. It calls for precise writing – no flowery language here and there. The IMRaD format further facilitates literature reviews. Let’s talk about the structure of IMRaD.

What Is IMRaD?

IMRAD cartoon presentation
What is IMRAD?

pointing handIntroduction

The introduction states the purpose and importance of the research. When writing the introduction, you will first have to provide a summary of the research that already exists in that particular field. Then, you can provide your hypothesis that identifies or elaborates on a ‘gap’ in that field. This can be any kind of identifiable problem. After that, you must provide a solution to the problem or gap that you identified. The introduction essentially works to establish the known and unknown. It revisits the existing facts and brings new ones to light. Everything that is written should, of course, be related to the research question.

pointing handMethod

This section must show how you conducted your research. Rather than explaining your study, you have to write about how you gathered and sorted through all the necessary data. This section has to be very specific and comprehensive. It has to include specifics about the populations and samples you gathered data from. If you conducted a survey, you must include all the details about it. For instance, what was asked, why you surveyed that specific segment of the population, what you were expecting, and so on. Although this section is the least read, it is extremely important as it shows how you came to your results.

pointing handResults

As the name implies, this section contains your research findings. You do not need to give an analysis of your results here. Rather, you just need to state your findings in detail. You can do so by utilizing graphs, charts, and diagrams, or by writing them in an organized manner. Usually, a substantial part of a scientific paper is dedicated to Results, as this is the essence of your study. It is advised to use the same order as the one in your Methods section, to present a streamlined appearance. The Introduction and Method of your paper should be linked to Results in such a way that it is shown as a build-up.

pointing handDiscussion

This is the section where you discuss and analyze the results of your research. You cannot introduce new ideas here. You have to write what your results imply and break down what the consequences can be. Your results will show the latest discoveries about your field. However, it is important to note down the limitations of your study in order to portray an accurate image. Also, details pertaining to what further research needs to be done is crucial. While it is important to connect your findings together, you must not stray away from your research to draw biased conclusions.


The scientific article in the health and life sciences evolved from the letter form, mainly practiced by the Nature and Science Magazine, and merely descriptive style in the seventeenth century to a very organized structure in the twentieth century known as introduction, methods, results, and discussion, as known as IMRAD. Today, the IMRaD format is widely used by many journals as proved to be effective and transparent in conveying a concise message.

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By David Adewusi

David is a blog writer who likes writing about literature, English grammar, and editing methods. He has also worked as a copy editor and proofreader. He has written excellent blog posts for Scientific Editing.

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